23 abr. Muito das informações aqui postas por mim se encontram em livros Biologia Evolutiva (2ª edição) de Douglas J. Futuyma, O Relojoeiro. puter sciences (Futuyma, ). The famous .. evolved at all in these directions (Futuyma , p. ). Originally, the .. Junker R and Scherer S () Evolução – um livro didático. crítico. Ensino de Biologia Evolutiva. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, .. Dawkins ; Mayr ,; Gould ;Ruiz and Ayala , ; Futuyma Los conocimientos evolutivos fundamentales tratados en este libro, fueron.
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Aspecies name has legal standing if it is published in a biologgia, or even in a privately produced publica- tion that is biologja available. The name of a species consists of its genus and its specific epithet; both biologua Latin or latinized ,”vords.
Numerous rules govern the con- struction of species names e. Rnttus l1orvegiclIs,not Rattus norvegica,for the brown rat. It is reCOlnmended that the name have meaning. Often a taxonomist ‘will honor another person by naming a species after him or her. The first rule of J10lnenclature is that no two species of animals, or of plants, can bear the same name.
It is pennissible, however, for the futuya name to be applied to both a plant and an animal genus; for example, Alsophila is the name of both a fern genus and a moth genus. Thus it sOllletimes happens that tvvo authors independently describe the same species under different names; in this case, the valid name is the older one, aIld the younger l1aIlleis a junior SYNONYM.
To prevent the obvious ambiguity that could arise in this way, it has become standard practice for the author to designate a Single specimen the T’rT’E.
Biologia Evolutiva: Biologia do Desenvolvimento e a Origem das Novidades Evolutivas
These species retain their specific epithets, but if they are shifted to a different genus, the author’s name is vnitten in parentheses. TIle rules for naming higher taxa are not all as strict as those for species and genera. In zoology and increasingly in botanyL names of subfamilies, families, and sometimes orders are formed from the stem of the type genus the first genus described. Most family names of plants end in -aceae.
In zoology, subfamily names end in -inae and family nanles in -idae. TIlliS MilS from the Latin mus, muris,”mouse”the genus of the house mouse, is the type genus of the family Muridae and the subfamily Murinae; Rosa rose is the type genus of the family Rosaceae.
evolution – douglas futuyma – livro de biologia evolutiva pdf
Endings for categories nbove family are standardized in some, but not all, groups e. Adjectives or colloquial nouns formed from these names are not capitalized: Each of those viologia, in turn, may divide and diverge to yield two descendant species, and the process Inay be repeated again and again thro’ughout the inunensely long history of life.
Danvin therefore gave meaning to the notion of “closely related” species: With breathtaking daring, Darwin ventured that all species of organisms, in all their amazing diversity, had descended by endless repetition of such events, through long ages, from perhaps only one COIll.
In Darwin’s words, aU species, extant and extinct, form evklutiva great “Tree of Life,” or phylogenetic tree, in wh. He expressed this metaphor in some of h. The affinities of all the beings ofthe same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree. I believe evolutivva simile largely speaks the truth. The green and budding twigs may repre.
At each period of bkologia all the growing twigs have tried to. The limbs divided into great branches, and these into lesser and lesser branches, were themselves once, when the tree was young, budding twigs; and this connection of the former and present buds by ramifying branches may well represent the classification of all extinct and living species in groups subordinate to groups. From the very first growth of the tree, many a limb and branch has decayed and dropped off;and these fallen branches of various sizes may represent evolutkva whole orders, families, and era which have futuma no living representatives, and which are known to us only in a fossil state.
Evolutivx buds give rise by. Time intervals between Roman nwnerals repre- sent thousands of generations. Darwin omitted the details of branch- ing for intervals X through XlV. Under Darv,rin’s hypothesis of conunon descent, a hierard1ical classi. Different genera in the same family share fewer bioogia [sties than do species within the same genus because ead1 has departed further from their lnore relnote COInmon ancestor; different fa milies within an order stem from a still more remote ancestor and retain still fewer characteristics in COll1ll Classification, then, can portray, to some degTee, the renl history of f?
We will first examine how this method of inferring evolutionary history works in a si. Consider tIle cIlaracteristics of an organislnorcharacters, as they are usually calledthat may differ among organisll1s.
For example, the several kinds of tortoises Danvin encountered in the Galapagos Islands differ in features such as body size, neck length, and shell shape Figure 2. Phenotypic characters that have proved useful for phylogenetic analyses of various organisms have included not only external and internal morphological features, but also differences in behavior, cell structure, biochemistry, and evollutiva some structure.
Today, armed with the knowledge and techniques of molecular biology, biologists often use DNA sequences, in which the identity of the nucleotide base A, T, C, or G at a particular site in the sequence may be considered a character. Each character can have different possible character states: As evolutivx first step, let us look at a group of four species with 10 variable cl1aracters of interest a-j.
Our task is to determine vvhich of the species are derived from recent, and which from n10re ancient, common ancestors.
evolution – douglas futuyma
For simplicity, let us suppose that each character can have two states, labeled 0 uftuyma 1, and that ais the ancestral state, found in the common ancestor Ancl of the. State 1 is a derived state-that is, a state that has evolved from the ancestral state.
For example, the ancestral state A might be replaced by the derived state C, or the ancestral state red eyes by the bologia state yellow eyes, during the evolution of one or more descendant taxa.
We use such data on character states to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the species. Eachevolutionary change, such as evolution from character state Oto character state aI’ is indicated by a tick Inark along the branch in which it occurs.
We refer to the set of species derived from anyone common ancestor as a monophyletic group. Suppose that Figure 2. Species 1 and 2, for example, both have character states 30′ bO’.
In this example, species 2 and 3 are most similar, and evolved frorn the most recent common ancestor. In this example, the degree of similarity is a reliable index of recency of conunon ancesh’Y, and it enables us to infer the. VVhen we measured similarity, we COWlted both the shared characters that did not evolve during the cmcestry of any two species e. If we count only the shared derivedcharacter states-those that did evolve-“we. Shared derived character states are sometimes called s ‘napomorphies.
That is, the rate of evolution is about equal among the lineages.
Perhaps this difference represents nlore base pair substitutions in a DNA sequence in species 2 than in the others. Futuyma – State University of New Aspectos Evolutivos em araneomorphae: Martins, Damasceno, Awada – Pronto-socorro Futujma